This is the documentation for older versions of Odoo (formerly OpenERP).

See the new Odoo user documentation.

See the new Odoo technical documentation.

前言

Information Systems have played an increasingly visible role over the past several years in improving the competitiveness of business. More than just tools for handling repetitive tasks, they're used to guide and advance all of a company's' daily activities. Integrated management software is today very often a key source of significant competitive advantage.

它基本的反应就是迅速、准确地响应需求,并针对快速递增的预期创建一个基于部门的具有清晰线条结构的组织,综合围绕着你的整个操作流程。综合销售员、会计师、后勤人员以及每一个对你的问题有共同理解的人提高他们的工作效率。

For this you need a common language for shared references, policies and communication. An ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system makes the ideal platform for this common reference point.

Open Source software at the service of management

Risks and integration costs are important barriers to all the advantages you gain from such systems. That's why, today, few small- and medium-sized companies use ERP. In addition, the larger ERP vendors such as SAP, Microsoft and Oracle haven't been able to reconcile the power and comprehensive cover of an ERP system with the simplicity and flexibility wanted by the users. But this is exactly what small and medium enterprises are looking for.

The development processes of open source software, and the new business models adopted by their developers, provide a new way of resolving such problems of cost and quality for this kind of enterprise software.

要让一个ERP系统在中小企业里完全有效的运行,降低成本是第一要务。开源软件利用强大的可重用软件库 使大幅度降低开发成本成为可能;它减少了批发商的中间环节同时也相应降低了他们高昂的销售费用所引发的成本;而且 软件的免费发布也减少了高昂的销售和市场费用。

Since there is open interaction among thousands of contributors and partners working on the same project, the quality of the resulting software benefits greatly from the scrutiny. And you can't be everything at once: accountant, software developer, salesperson, ISO 9001 quality professional, specialist in agricultural products, expert in the customs and habits of pharmaceutical vendors, just as a start.

Faced with these wide-ranging requirements, what could be better than a world network of partners and contributors? Everyone adds their own contribution according to their professional competence. Throughout this book you'll see that the results exceed any reasonable expectations when such work is well organized.

But the real challenge of development is to make this solution simple and flexible, as well as complete. And to reach this level of quality you need a leader and co-ordinator who can organize all of these activities. So the development team of Tiny ERP, today called Open ERP, is responsible for most of the organization, synchronization and coherence of the software.

And Open ERP offers great performance in all these areas!

The Open ERP Solution

Because of its modularity, collaborative developments in Open ERP have been cleanly integrated, enabling any company to choose from a large list of available functions. As with most open source software, accessibility, flexibility, and simplicity are important keywords for development. Experience has shown that there's no need to train users for several months on the system, because they can just download it and use it directly.

So you'll find the modules for all types of needs, allowing your company to build its customized system by simply grouping and configuring the most suitable modules. Hundreds of modules are available.

它们的范围从类似于曾被使用在与勒克莱尔仓库相匹配的接口的农产品的EDI界面这类特殊定制的模,至到普通的用来依据你公司员工的口味来订购三明治的有真实案例的自动化模块。

The results are rather impressive. Open ERP (once called Tiny ERP when it started out) is management software that is downloaded more than any other in the world, with over 600 downloads per day. It's available today in 18 languages and has a world network of partners and contributors. More than 800 developers participate in the projects on the collaborative development system of Tiny Forge.

To our knowledge, OpenERP is the only management system which is routinely used not only by big companies but also by very small companies and independent companies. This diversity is an illustration of the software's flexibility: a rather elegant coordination between people's functional expectations of the software and great simplicity in its use.

这种多样性还发生在不同的部门和行业中,他们都使用OpenERP,包括农产品,纺织品,公开拍卖,IT,和行业协会。

Lastly, such software has arisen from the blend of high code quality, well-judged architecture and use of free technologies. In fact, you may be surprised (if you're an IT person) to find that the download size of OpenERP is only around 6 MB. When that's expanded during installation its size is mostly attributable to all the official translations that are packaged with it, not the operating code. We've moved a long way from the days when the only people who could be expected to benefit from ERP were the owners of a widget factory on some remote industrial estate.

本书的意义?

Many books set out to tell readers about the management of enterprise, and equally many aim to instruct the reader in the use of a piece of specialized software. We're not aiming to add to those lists because our approach is intended to be different.

Having restructured and reorganized many businesses, we wanted our management experience to generate a work that is both instructive and practical. It was important for us not to write a manual about OpenERP, but instead a work that deals with advanced management techniques realized through these IT tools. You'll see what management practices might be useful, what's possible, and then how you could achieve that in OpenERP.

It's this that we'll consider OpenERP for: not as an end in itself but just the tool you use to put an advanced management system into place.

Who's it for?

Written by two CEOs who have been successful with new technologies, this book is aimed at directors and managers who have an ambition to improve the performance of their whole company's management team. They're likely already to have significant responsibilities and possess the influence to get things done in their company.

It's likely that most readers will come from small- and medium-sized enterprises (up to a few hundred staff), and independent companies, because of the breadth of functions that need to be analyzed and involved in change. The same principles also apply to larger companies, however.

本书结构

Part One, First steps with Open ERP, starts with the installation of OpenERP. If you have already installed OpenERP you can directly take your first steps on a guided tour in the OpenERP 漫游指南 chapter. If you're already familiar with OpenERP or Tiny ERP you can use the Developing a real case chapter to find out how to create a new workflow from scratch in an empty database with nothing to distract you. Or you can skip directly to the 客户关系管理 chapter in the 客户关系管理 part, to start with details of OpenERP's functional modules.

Part Two, 客户关系管理, deals with Supplier and Customer Relationship Management (SRM & CRM). You'll find the elements necessary for managing an efficient sales department there, and automating tasks to monitor performance.

第三部分, General Accounting, 是关于普通财务和整个企业的管理的关键的业务。.

Part Four, 有效的运营管理, handles all the operational functions of enterprise management: Human Resources for managing projects, through financial analyses supplied by analytic (or cost) accounts. You'll see how using OpenERP can help you to optimize your leadership of an enterprise.

Part Five, Stock and Manufacturing, describes the physical movement of Stocks and their Manufacture (the transformation or products and services into other products).

第六章, Sales and Purchasing, 关于采购和销售商品与服务.

Part Seven, 流程与文档管理, is focused on the Process description and Documentation handling that OpenERP manages.

Finally Part Eight, 系统管理与实施, structured in two chapters, explains first how to administer and configure Open ERP then provides a methodology for implementing OpenERP in the enterprise.

注解

作者简介

Fabien Pinckaers

Fabien Pinckaers创建他的第一个公司时只有18岁。十年后的今天,他已经创建和管理着数家新技术公司,这些公司都基于自由开放源码软件。

他创建了Tiny ERP,现在叫作 OpenERP,他现在是两个公司的顾问(Tiny sprl 创始人,OpenERP软件版权拥有)。三年中,在没有贷款和筹集资金的情况下,通过创造利润,OpenERP 公司从1名发展到65名员工。

他还开发了几个大型项目,例如Auction-In-Europe.com。此网站已成为比利时在线艺术品市场的领导者。时至今日,人们更多地是在此网站上售卖艺术品而不是ebay.be。

他同时也是Louvain-la-Neuve(比利时城市)Linux用户组(LUG)以及一些自由项目,如OpenReport、OpenStuff和Tiny Report的创办人。拥有土木工程师(理工专科学校)背景的他,还获得了一些欧洲IT奖项,例如Wired 和 l'Inscene。

作为企业使用自由软件的积极倡导者,他经常被邀请为会议的演讲嘉宾。同时,他还撰写了一系列自由软件在企业中应用文章。

杰夫·加德纳(Geoff Gardiner)

杰夫(Geoff)曾担任的职位为制造行业的国际公司的IT系统和服务的总监。他是资深产业研究员,剑桥大学制造研究所,他专注于创新的过程。

He founded Seath Solutions Ltd (http://www.seathsolutions.com/) to provide services in the use of Open Source software, particularly Open ERP, for business management.

Author of articles and books focusing on the processes and technology of innovation, Geoff is also an active contributor to the Open ERP project. He holds an MBA from Cranfield School of Management and an MA in Engineering and Electrical Sciences from Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He is a member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology and of the Society of Authors.

对于如何成功地采用有效的管理自动化工具,经历过多家公司和机构流程实施的他拥有着独到的想法。

“获奖”感言(嘿嘿,大神们说两句呗)

来自Geoff Gardiner

My gratitude goes to my co-author, Fabien Pinckaers, for his vision and tenacity in developing Tiny ERP and OpenERP, and the team at Tiny for its excellent work on this.

OpenERP依托开源这种理念,多年来吸收了众多有才华的人的开发和调试的技术。他们的努力应该给以极大的赞赏。

也要感谢我的家人对我的的鼓励,感谢他们的宽容和一直的支持。

来自 Fabien Pinckaers

I address my thanks to all of the team at Tiny for their hard work in preparing, translating and re-reading the book in its various forms. My particular thanks to Laurence Henrion and my family for supporting me throughout all this effort.