This is the documentation for older versions of Odoo (formerly OpenERP).

See the new Odoo user documentation.

See the new Odoo technical documentation.

From invoice to payment

*This chapter traces the basic accounting workflow in Open ERP, from entering an invoice to registering payment. The various operations are described, from the entry of accounting receipts to the treatment of the reconciliation process, including payment orders.*

Accounting is at the heart of managing a company: all the company's operations have an impact here. It has an informational role (how much cash is there? what debts need to be repaid? what's the stock valuation?) and, because of the information it provides, a reliable and detailed accounting system can and should have a major decision-making role.

In most companies, accounting is limited to producing statutory reports and satisfying the directors' curiosity about certain strategic decisions, and to printing the balance sheet and the income statement several times a year. Even then there's often several weeks of delay between reality and the report.

注解

Valuing your accounting function

In many small companies, the accounting function is poorly treated.

Not only do you see the data for documents being entered into the system twice, but also the results are often just used to produce legal documentation and regular printouts of the balance sheet and income statements some weeks after the closing dates.

By contrast, integrating your accounts with your management system means that you can:

  • reduce data entry effort – you only need do it once,

  • run your processes with the benefit of financial vision: for example in managing projects, negotiating contracts and forecasting cash flow,

  • easily get hold of useful information when you need it, such as a customer's credit position.

So accounting is too often underused. The information it brings makes it a very effective tool for running the company if it's integrated into the management system. Accounting information really is necessary in all of your company's processes for you to be effective, for example:

  • for preparing quotations it's important to know the precise financial position of the customer, and to see a history of any delays in payment,

  • if a given customer has exceeded his credit limit, accounting can automatically stop further deliveries to the customer,

  • if a project budget is 80% consumed but the project is only 20% complete you could renegotiate with the customer, or review and rein in the objectives of the project,

  • if you need to improve your company's cash flow then you could plan your services projects on the basis of billing rates and payment terms of the various projects, and not just delivery dates – you could work on short-term client projects in preference to R&D projects, for example.

Open ERP's general and analytic accounting handle these needs well because of the close integration between all of the application modules. Furthermore, the transactions, the actions and the financial analyses happen in real time, so that you cannot only monitor the situation but also manage it effectively.

The account module in Open ERP covers general accounting, analytic accounting, and auxiliary and budgetary accounting. It is double-entry, multi-currency and multi-company.

注解

财务

  • General accounting (or financial accounting) is for identifying the assets and liabilities of the business. It's managed using double-entry accounting which ensures that each transaction is credited to one account and debited from another.

  • Analytical accounting (or management or cost accounting) is an independent accounting system which reflects the general accounts but is structured along axes that represent the company's management needs.

  • 辅助账户是用于反映顾客或供应商的账户。

  • 预算会计用于事先规定资源分配的期望值,通常用于年度会计期间的开始。

小技巧

多公司操作

There is a choice of methods for integrating Open ERP in a multi-company environment:

  • if the companies hold few documents in common (such as products, or partners - any OpenERP resource), you should install separate databases,

  • if the companies share many documents, you can register them in the same database and install Open ERP's multi-company documents to finely manage access rights,

  • you can synchronize specified document types in several databases using the base_synchro module, which is a shared-funding module rather than a module in the standard open repositories.

One of the great advantages of integrating accounts with all of the other modules is in avoiding the double entry of data into accounting documents. So in Open ERP an Order automatically generates an Invoice, and the Invoice automatically generates the accounting entries. These in turn generate tax submissions, customer reminders, and so on. Such strong integration enables you to:

  • 减少处理数据的工作

  • 极大地减少数据处理的错误,

  • get information in real time and enable very fast reaction times (for bill reminders, for example),

  • exert timely control over all areas of company management.

小技巧

For accountants

When you create a database you can install only the accounting modules by choosing the Accounting only profile profile_accounting.

You should then install the web portal portal_account. With appropriate rights management, this allows trustees to provide customers with real-time access to their data. It also gives them the opportunity to work on certain documents that have no direct accounting impact, such as budgets.

This can provide an added-value service that greatly improves the interaction between trustees and their clients.

All the accounts are held in the default currency (which is specified in the company definition), but each account and/or transaction can also have a secondary currency (which is defined in the account). The value of multi-currency transactions is then tracked in both currencies.

在本章中,你应该使用一个包括了演示数据的全新数据库,安装 sale 【销售】及其依赖模块,并没有什么特别的会计科目配置