This is the documentation for older versions of Odoo (formerly OpenERP).

See the new Odoo user documentation.

See the new Odoo technical documentation.

Price management policies

Some companies are notorious for their complicated pricelists. Many forms of price variation are used, such as end-of-year refunds, discounts, changes of terms and conditions with time, various prepayments, cascaded rebates, seasonal promotions, and progressive price reductions.

注解

Rebate, Refund, Reduction

In some accounting jurisdictions you have to differentiate between the three following terms:

  • Rebate: reimbursement to the client, usually at the end of the year, that depends on the quantity of goods purchased over a period.

  • Refund: reduction on the order line or invoice line if a certain quantity of goods is purchased at one time or is sold in a framework of a promotional activity.

  • Reduction: a one-off reduction resulting from a quality defect or a variation in a product's conformance to a specification.

Intelligent price management is difficult, because it requires you to integrate several conditions from clients and suppliers to create estimates quickly or to invoice automatically. But if you have an efficient price management mechanism you can often keep margins raised and respond quickly to changes in market conditions. A good price management system gives you scope for varying any and all of the relevant factors when you're negotiating a contract.

To help you work most effectively, OpenERP's pricelist principles are extremely powerful yet are based on simple and generic rules. You can develop both sales pricelists and purchase pricelists for products capable of accommodating conditions such as the date period, the quantity requested and the type of product.

小技巧

Don't confuse the different price specifications

Don't confuse the sale price with the base price of the product. In OpenERP's basic configuration the sale price is the list price set on the product form but a customer can be given a different sale price depending on the conditions.

It's the same for purchase price and standard cost. Purchase price is your suppliers' selling price, which changes in response to different criteria such as quantities, dates, and supplier. This is automatically set by the accounting system. You'll find that the two prices have been set by default to the same for all products with the demonstration data, which can be a source of confusion. You're free to set the standard cost to something different.

Each pricelist is calculated from defined policies, so you'll have as many sales pricelists as active sales policies in the company. For example a company that sells products through three sales channels could create the following price lists:

  1. Main distribution:

    • pricelist for Walbury,

    • pricelist for TesMart,

  2. Postal Sales.

  3. Walk-in customers.

A single pricelist can exist in several versions, only one of which is permitted to be active at a given time. These versions let you set different prices at different points in time. So the pricelist for walk-in customers could have five different versions, for example: Autumn, Summer, Summer Sales, Winter, Spring. Direct customers will see prices that change with the seasons.

Each pricelist is expressed in a single currency. If your company sells products in several currencies you'll have to create as many pricelists as you have currencies.

The prices on a pricelist can depend on another list, which means that you don't have to repeat the definition of all conditions for each product. So a pricelist in USD can be based on a pricelist in EUR. If the currency conversion rates between EUR and USD change, or the EUR prices change, the USD rates can be automatically adjusted.

Creating pricelists

To define a pricelist use the menu Products ‣ Pricelists ‣ Pricelists .

For each list you should define:

  • a Name for the list,

  • a Type of list: Sale for customers or Purchase for suppliers,

  • the Currency in which the prices are expressed.

小技巧

Customer Price

If you install the module edi (in addons-extra at the time of writing) a third type of list appears – the Customer Price - which defines the price displayed for the end user. This doesn't have to be the same as your selling price to an intermediary or distributor.

Pricelist versions

Once the list is defined you must provide it with at least one version. To do that use the menu Products ‣ Pricelists ‣ Pricelist Versions. The version contains all of the rules that enable you to calculate a price for a product and a given quantity.

So set the Name of this associated version. If the list only has a single version you can use the same name for the pricelist and the version. In the Pricelist field select the pricelist you created.

Then set the Start date and End date of this version. The fields are both optional: if you don't set any dates the version will be permanently active. Only one version may be active at any one point, so bear this in mind when creating them. Use the Active field in the versions to activate or disable a pricelist version.

注解

Automatically updating the sale pricelist

You can make any sale pricelist depend on one of the other pricelists. So you could make your sale pricelist depend on your supplier's purchase pricelist, to which you add a margin. The prices are automatically calculated as a function of the purchase price and need no further manual adjustment.

Rules for calculating price

A pricelist version is made up of a set of rules that apply to the product base prices.

/doc_static/5.0/_images/service_pricelist_line.png

Detail of a rule in a pricelist version

You define the conditions for a rule in the first part of the definition screen labeled Rules Test Match. The rule applies to the Product or Product Template and/or the named Product Category. If a rule is applied to a category then it is automatically applied to all of its subcategories too (using the tree structure for product categories).

If you set a minimum quantity in Min. Quantity the rule will only apply to a quantity the same as or larger than that set. This lets you set reduced rates in steps that depend on the quantities ordered.

Several rules can be applied to an order. Open ERP evaluates these rules in sequence to select which to apply to the specified price calculation. If several rules are valid only the first in sequence is used for the calculation. The Sequence field determines the order, starting with the lowest number and working up.

Once a rule has been selected, the system has to determine how to calculate the price from the rule. This operation is based on the criteria set out in the lower part of the form, labeled Price Computation.

The first field you have to complete is labeled Based on. Set the mode for partner price calculation, choosing between:

  • the List Price set in the product file,

  • the Standard Cost set in the product file,

  • an Other Pricelist given in the field If Other Pricelist,

  • the price that varies as a function of a supplier defined in the Partner section of the product form.

Several other criteria can be considered and added to the list, as you'll see in the following section.

Next, various operations can be applied to the base price to calculate the sales or purchase price for the partner at the specified quantities. To calculate it you apply the formula shown on the form: Price = Base Price x (1 + Field1) + Field2 .

The first field, Field1, defines a discount. Set it to 0.20 for a discount of 20% from the base price. If your price is based on standard cost, you can set -0.15 to get a 15% price uplift compared with the standard costs.

Field2 sets a fixed supplement to the price, expressed in the currency of the pricelist. This amount is just added (or subtracted, if negative) to the amount calculated with the Field1 discount.

Then you can specify a rounding method. The rounding calculation is carried out to the nearest number. For example if you set 0.05 in this example, a price of 45.66 will be rounded to 45.65, and 14,567 rounded to 100 will give a price of 14,600.

注解

Swiss special situation

In Switzerland, the smallest monetary unit is 5 cents. There aren't any 1 or 2 cent coins. So you set Open ERP's rounding to 0.05 to round everything in a Swiss franc pricelist.

The supplement from Field2 is applied before the rounding calculation, which enables some interesting effects. For example if you want all your prices to end in 9.99, set your rounding to 10 and your supplement to -0.01 in Field2.

Minimum and Maximum margins enable you to guarantee a given margin over the base price. A margin of 10 USD enables you to stop the discount from returning less than that margin. If you put 0 into this field, no effect is taken into account.

Once the pricelist is defined you can assign it to a partner. To do this, find a Partner and select its Properties tab. You can then change the Purchase Pricelist and the Sale Pricelist that's loaded by default for the partner.

Case of using pricelists

Take the case of an IT systems trading company, for which the following product categories have been configured:

所有产品

  1. 配件

    • 打印机

    • 扫描仪

    • 键鼠与耳麦

  2. 台式电脑

    • 笔记本

    • 一体机

    • 台式电脑

    • 办公用台式机

    • 专业台式机

In addition, the products presented in the table below are defined in the currency of the installed chart of accounts.

表格

Examples of products with their different prices

产品

List Price

标准价格

采购价

 

Acclo 笔记本

1,200

887

893

 

Toshibishi 笔记本

1,340

920

920

 

Berrel 键盘

100

50

50

 

办公台式机

1,400

1,000

1,000

 

Default pricelists

/doc_static/5.0/_images/product_pricelist_default.png

OpenERP 默认的价格表

When you install the software two pricelists are created by default: one for sales and one for purchases. These each contain only one pricelist version and only one line in that version.

The price for sales defined in the Default Public Pricelist is set by default to the Public Price of the product in the product file, which is the Sale Price in the Product file.

The price for purchases defined in the Default Purchase Pricelist is set by default in the same way to the Standard Cost of the product in the product file.

Example of a trading company

Take the case of a trading company, where the sale price for resellers can be defined like this:

  • For portable computers, the sale price is calculated from the list price of the supplier Acclo, with a supplement of 23% on the cost of purchase.

  • For all other products the sale price is given by the standard cost in the product file, on which 31% is added. The price must end in .99 .

  • The sale price of Berrel keyboards is fixed at 60 for a minimum quantity of 5 keyboards purchased. Otherwise it uses the rule above.

  • Assume that the Acclo pricelist is defined in Open ERP. The pricelist for resellers and the pricelist version then contains three lines:

    1. Acclo line:

      • Product Category : Portables ,

      • Based on : Other pricelist ,

      • Pricelist if other : Acclo pricelist ,

      • Field1 : -0.23 ,

      • Priority : 1 .

    2. Berrel Keyboard line:

      • Product Template : Berrel Keyboard ,

      • Min. Quantity : 5 ,

      • Field1 : 1.0 ,

      • Field2 : 60 ,

      • Priority : 2 .

    3. Other products line:

      • Based on: Standard Price ,

      • Field1 : -0.31 ,

      • Field2 : -0.01 ,

      • Rounding : 1.0 .

      • Priority : 3.

It's important that the priority of the second rule is set below the priority of the third in this example. If it were the other way round the third rule would always be applied because a quantity of 5 is always greater than a quantity of 1 for all products.

Also note that to fix a price of 60 for the 5 Berrel Keyboards, the formula Price = Base Price x (1 + 1.0) + 60 has been used.

Establishing customer contract conditions

The trading company can now set specific conditions to a customer, such as the company TinAtwo, who might have signed a valid contract with the following conditions:

  • For Toshibishi portables, TinAtwo benefits from a discount of 5% of resale price.

  • For all other products, the resale conditions are unchanged.

The list price for TinAtwo, called TinAtwo contract , contains two rules:

  1. Toshibishi portable :

    • Product : Toshibishi Portable ,

    • Based on : Other pricelist ,

    • Pricelist if other : Reseller pricelist ,

    • Field1 : 0.05 ,

    • Priority : 1 .

  2. Other Products:

    • Product :

    • Based on : Other pricelist ,

    • Pricelist if other : Reseller pricelist ,

    • Priority : 2 .

Once this list has been entered you should look for the partner form for TinAtwo again. Click the Properties tab to set the Sale List Price field to TinAtwo Contract. If the contract is only valid for one year, don't forget to set the Start Date and End Date fields in the Price List Version.

Then when salespeople prepare an estimate for TinAtwo the prices proposed will automatically be calculated from the contract conditions.

Different bases for price calculation

OpenERP's flexibility enables you to make prices that depend not only on prices on the product form, but in addition to the two predefined ones – Cost Price and Public Price.

To do this use the menu Products ‣ Configuration ‣ Prices Computation ‣ Price Types. Create a new entry for the new price type. Enter the field name, the field on the product form that this type of price corresponds to and the currency that will be expressed in this field. The operation works just as well on new fields added to the product form to meet specific developments.

Once this operation has been carried out you can make pricelists depend on this new price type.

Then, adding the weight and/or volume field, the price of a product by piece can vary by its weight and/or volume. This is different from defining a price by weight – in that case the default unit of measure is weight and not piece.

Pricelists and managing currencies

If your trading company wants to start a product catalog in a new currency you can handle this several ways:

  • Enter the prices in a new independent pricelist and maintain the lists in the two currencies separately,

  • Create a field in the product form for this new currency and make the new pricelist depend on this field: prices are then maintained separately but in the product file,

  • Create a new pricelist for the second currency and make it depend on another pricelist or on the product price: the conversion between the currencies will then be done automatically at the prevailing currency conversion rate.