This is the documentation for older versions of Odoo (formerly OpenERP).

See the new Odoo user documentation.

See the new Odoo technical documentation.

Управленческие показатели

Примечание

Финансовые показатели

Indicators, sometimes called financial ratios, are tools for analyzing a company's finances. They enable you to compare two accounts or sets of accounts from the balance sheet or the profit and loss account, in the form of a ratio. They also let you measure the financial health of a company, and make comparisons from one year to the next or against those of other companies.

To define financial indicators in OpenERP, you should install the module account_report (from extra-addons). When installing the module, the usual financial indicators are registered in OpenERP.

You can consult your indicators, calculated in real time, from the menu Accounting ‣ Reporting ‣ Generic Reporting ‣ Reporting ‣ Custom reporting.

Indicators defined by default in OpenERP are the following:

  • Indicators of Working Capital : determines if the company can pay its short term debts in normal conditions. It is calculated from (Stocks + Cash + Current Assets) / Current Liabilities .

  • Financial Ratios : enables you to calculate the company's liquidity. It is defined as follows: ( Current Assets Stocks) / Current Liabilities .

  • Fixed Assets : in a going concern, the value of fixed assets are covered in the first place by owners' capital and in the second place by all of the long term liabilities. Ideally, this indicator will be greater than 1.

Совет

Calculation of Indicators

Calculating indicators can take quite a while in OpenERP, because you have to analyse the whole company's accounting entries.

So it is best not to calculate all of the indicators at once, but just a small selection to keep calculation time within limits.

Time Analysis of Indicators

Вы можете проводить анализ финансовых показателей по двум осям. Вы должны иметь значения, рассчитанные в определенные моменты времени, когда вы сравниваете счета, остатки, и соотношения между ними. Однако вы также можете рассчитывать временные ряды, чтобы прослеживать изменения данного показателя во время деятельности компании.

To do a temporal analysis of your indicators, you must install the module account_report from the set of modules in extra-addons.

После того, как модуль установлен, вы можете нажать мышью на финансовом показателе, чтобы получить график его изменения во времени.

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История бухгалтерского показателя

Defining your Own Indicators

You can define your own indicators in OpenERP using the menu Accounting ‣ Reporting ‣ Generic Reporting ‣ Reporting ‣ Custom reporting.

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Определение нового показателя

Вам необходимо убедиться, что счетам, на основе которых рассчитываются ваши показатели, даны уникальные коды счетов, потому что при создании формул используются коды. Создайте формулу, применяя синтаксис, который показан в нижней части формулы:

  • Sum of debits in a general account: debit('12345') ,

  • Sum of credits in a general account: credit('12345') ,

  • Balance of a general account: balance('12345') ,

  • Value of another indicator: report ('IND') .

где:

  • 12345 represents the code of a general account,

  • IND represents the code of another indicator.

So, using this notation, the cash ratio is defined by balance('4', '5') / balance('1') – that is the balance in accounts 4 and 5 divided by the balance in account 1.

Good Management Budgeting

OpenERP manages its budgets using both General and Analytic Accounts. You will see how to do this here for General Accounts and then in Счета аналитики for Analytical Accounts. Install account_budget to be able to do this.

Use the menu Accounting ‣ Budgets ‣ Budgets to define a new budget by clicking the New button.

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Budget Form

Совет

Модификации бюджета

Even though you can modify a budget at any time to make a revision of it, it is best if you do not do that.

Не изменяйте существующий документ бюджета, сделайте новую версию, так что вы сможете сохранить ваши исходные оценки для сравнения. Это позволит вам анализировать изменения перспектив вашей компании от версии к версии.

Begin data entry by entering a Name, a Code, a Start Date and an End Date in your new budget. Then you can define the budgeted amounts within that period, one by one. For each, you define:

  • Счет аналитики (Analytic Account),

  • a Budgetary Position : for example Sales or Purchases,

  • Дату начала (Start Date) и Дату окончания (End Date) для использования бюджета,

  • Запланированную сумму (Planned Amount) в валюте по умолчанию для плана счетов.

Once it is completed, you can save your budget.

To print a budget and make calculations of expenditure through budget, use the menu Accounting ‣ Budgets ‣ Budgets. OpenERP then gives you a list of available budgets. Select one or more budgets and then click Print Budgets to create the report for each, in a date range of your choice. The figure Вывод бюджета на печать gives an example of a budget produced by OpenERP.

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Вывод бюджета на печать

You could also use the menu Accounting ‣ Reporting ‣ Generic Reporting ‣ Budgets ‣ Budget Lines. This gives a budgetary analysis report for each budget line.

Бухгалтерская панель аналитики

You can open the Accounting Dashboard using the menu Accounting ‣ Reporting ‣ Dashboard ‣ Accounting Dashboard.

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Бухгалтерская панель аналитики

OpenERP gives you an accounting dashboard that can be presented to your accounting staff as they sign into the system (if you have set it as their Home Page). This dashboard provides an analysis of the company's financial health at a glance.

The description of the different parts of the dashboard, from top to bottom, then from left to right, is as follows:

  • Customer Invoices to Approve : gives the list of invoices waiting to be approved by an accountant.

  • Company Analysis : gives the credit, debit and balance of all account types.

  • Treasury : shows balance per Account

  • Aged receivables : gives a weekly graph of the receivables that have not yet been reconciled.

In each panel of the Accounting Dashboard, you can click the Zoom button at the top right to investigate the detail of your financial indicators.

The Accounting Dashboard is dynamically integrated, which means that you can navigate easily through the data if you want more detail about certain factors, and edit the entries if necessary.