优化 采购/销售 业务流程¶
从 元件供应商 那里以单价 56.00 采购 10 个钛合金散热器。
客户Smith 和 Sons这两位客户下单订购6 台钛合金散热器，卖 130.00每个。
要给供应商下达采购任务,菜单入口在 Purchases ‣ Purchase Management ‣ Purchase Orders 中文菜单项为 采购 ‣ 采购管理 ‣ 采购订单 点击 新建 按钮即可。
Supplier : Plumbing Component Suppliers .
当你选择了 供应商 后, 采购订单会自动完成该供应商的 地址 及 价格表 字段。
Product : Titanium Alloy Radiator - type in part of this name then press the tab key to complete it, or click the Search icon at the end of the line to bring a search box. (if product is previously configured)
单位 : 产品的默认采购单位,
名称 : 产品的描述性名称,
交货日期 : 采购预计交付时间,
单价 : 产品的价格规则产生的默认采购价格,
辅助核算项 : 当你设置了辅助核算默认项值，会自动带出来。(本例没有设置相关辅助核算),
税 : applicable taxes defined in the partner, if specified, otherwise in the product, if specified (there are not any in this example).
数量 : 10.00.
价格 : 56.00.
保存采购订单明细,点击 关闭 按钮关闭 明细 窗口. 点 保存 按钮, 可以保存数据并查看明细数据而不关闭窗口.
目前为止采购还仅是询价状态,现在你可以使用 采购经理或者 公司财务的角色 进到本采购单 点击 转换为采购单 的按钮, 批准该笔采购.
现在你点击 收货与发票 页签时，你可以看到收货地址是你所在公司 仓库 的 收货地址 。 并且系统已经自动为本次采购生成了草稿状态(还可以根据需要进行修改)的供应商发票。 因为目前为止还没有涉及财务部分，所以这个留到后面财务人员进行确认核准操作。
点开各个菜单项前的展开图标 仓库 ‣ 仓库管理 ‣ 收货 .
You could have clicked the Receptions link to the right of the Purchase Order to reach the same screen, but this would confuse the purchasing role with the stores role. That link is very useful during testing and training, however.
When the Incoming Shipments window appears, select the name of the entry in the list (IN/00002) to display the Packing List itself – you would usually do a search for the supplier name or order number in a list that was larger than this – then click Process to load the Process Document form.
Click Validate to indicate that you are receiving the whole quantity of 10 units.
使用菜单 采购 ‣ 产品 ‣ 产品 你可以找到产品 钛合金散热器 实物库存和虚拟库存数量为10.0了。 单击该产品进入到产品 表单 页后,在右面最右侧的 按库位查看库存 链接可以直接查看该产品在各个物理库位与虚拟库位的数量分布情况。点击 库位库存概要 报表就可以查看到各库位各产品的详细库存情况。
OpenERP operates a double-entry stock transfer scheme similar to double-entry accounting. Because of this you can carry out various analyses of stock levels in your warehouse, along with the corresponding levels in Partner Location at your Supplier. The double-entry system, analogous to that of accounting, enables you to keep track of stock movements quite easily, and to resolve any errors that occur.
当您从供应商收到发票（通常会被发送到您的财务部），去菜单 会计 ‣ 供应商 ‣ 供应商发票 打开等待接收的供应商发票列表。这些发票使您们财务部再次核对订购的价格和数量与供应商发票上的价格和数量（因为有时，从供应商收到的发票显示的内容比购买时同意的内容更优惠，这是一个很有用的功能）。
在本例中，当确认供应商的采购订单时会自动生成一个发票。因为在订单的 Invoicing Control`开票方式(Invoicing Control) 已经设为 ``基于订单(From Order)`（默认选项）。其他选项可以让你基于收货单开票或者手工创建。发票的初始状态是 草稿(Draft).
现在为您的订单点击发票 PO00001以显示其内容。您可以用从供应商收到的发票来比较商品。如果存在差异，是可以更改订单项的，例如添加一个送货费。点击 Validate 确认发票变为 Open 状态。
当发票核准时,系统会自动生成对应的会计凭证.这时打开 公司的会计科目一览表( 会计 ‣ 表 ‣ 科目一览表 , 在 科目一览表 窗体中 点击 打开一览表 按钮, 你就可以看到对应的 材料采购 科目借方余额与 应付帐款 科目贷方余额 为 560.00 元.
Select the menu Accounting ‣ Suppliers ‣ Supplier Invoices and click on the Unpaid button for a list of supplier invoices that have not yet been paid. Write the PO00001 in Source Document text itself to find the invoice. In practice, you would search for the invoice by order number or, more generally, for invoices nearing their payment date.
在打开的供应商发票页面点击 支付发票 按钮, 打开 发票支付 窗体进行发票支付操作.
Supplier and Date comes automatically from invoice. You need to just enter the Payment Method. After that, click on Validate button to post this entry.
The method described here is for companies that do not use their accounting system to pay bills – just to record them. If you are using the account module with all its features, other, more efficient, methods let you manage payments, such as entering account statements, reconciling paperwork, using tools for preparing payments, interfacing with banks.
You can monitor the accounting impact of paying the invoice through the chart of accounts available from the menu Accounting ‣ Charts ‣ Chart of Accounts. OpenERP automatically creates accounting entries from the payment, and can reconcile the payment to the invoice. You now have a new transaction that has debited the Payable account with 560.00 and credited the Cash account.
在菜单 会计(Accounting) ‣ (会计凭证)Journal Entries ‣ (会计凭证)Journal Entries 中可以看到两种会计交易，一个是在每个 (采购)Purchase 账簿，以及在 草稿(Draft) 状态的 银行(Bank) 账簿。
In OpenERP, sales proposals and sales orders are managed using documents that are based on the same common functionality as purchase orders, so you will recognize the following documents in general but see changes to their detail and to their workflows. To create a new sales proposal, use the menu Sales ‣ Sales ‣ Sales Orders and click on New button which creates a new order in a state of Quotation , then:
Select the Customer Axelor . This has the effect of automatically completing several other fields: Ordering Contact, Invoice Address, Shipping Address, and the Pricelist Public Pricelist (EUR). They are all only defaults, so these fields can be modified as you need.
Click the New button in Sales Order Lines section to open a Sales Order Lines window.
Select the product Titanium Alloy Radiator . Although the Product field is not itself required, it is used by OpenERP to select the specific product so that several other fields can be automatically completed on the order line of the proposal, such as Description, Unit of Measure, Unit Price, Procurement Method, Delivery Lead Time, and Taxes.
Change the Quantity (UoM) to 6 and the Unit Price to 130.00. Then click Save & Close and the line appears on the quotation form.
On the Other Information tab of this Sales Order, select a Picking Policy of Complete Delivery and Shipping Policy of Invoice on Order After Delivery from their dropdown menu lists.
Return to the first tab Sales Order and validate the document by clicking Confirm Order which calculates prices and the changes the order's state from Quotation to In Progress as shown in screenshot Sales Order Form. If you were in negotiation with the prospective customer, you would keep clicking Compute and Save, keeping the document in Quotation state for as long as necessary.
In the last tab of the order History, you can see the Picking List that has been created and you will be able to see any invoices that relate to this order when they are generated.
Go to Sales ‣ Products ‣ Products to display a list of products: just the one, 钛合金散热器 , currently exists in this example. Its Real Stock still shows 10.00 but its Virtual Stock now shows 4.00 to reflect the new future requirement of 6 units for dispatch.
仓库管理员通过菜单项 仓库 ‣ 仓库管理 ‣ 送货单 可以列出当前待处理的送货单, 本例中, 你可以找到由前面的销售单而产生的送货单.
At the moment, your Sales Order is waiting for products to be reserved to fulfil it. A stock reservation activity takes place periodically to calculate the needs, which also takes customer priorities into account. The calculation can be started from the menu Warehouse ‣ Schedulers ‣ Compute Schedulers. Running this automatically reserves products.
如果你想弄明白库存需求但是又搞不定工作流的话，你可以安装 mrp_jit （简单生产）模块（来避免工作流的影响）。
Although OpenERP has automatically been made aware that items on this order will need to be dispatched, it has not yet assigned any specific items from any location to fulfil it. It is ready to move 6.00 钛合金散热器 from the Stock location to the Customers location, so start this process by clicking Check Availability. The Move line has now changed from the Confirmed state to the Available state.
Then click the Process button to reach the Process Document window, where you click the Validate button to transfer the 6 radiators to the customer.
To analyze stock movements that you have made during these operations, use Warehouse ‣ Product ‣ Product and find this product, then click on the action Stock by Location which is at the right most side to see that your stocks have reduced to 4 radiators and the generic Customers location has a level of 6 radiators.
Use the menu Accounting ‣ Customers ‣ Customer Invoices to open a list of Sales invoices generated by OpenERP. If they are in the Draft state, it means that they do not yet have any presence in the accounting system. You will find a draft invoice has been created for the order SO00008 once you have dispatched the goods because you had selected Invoice on Order After Delivery .
Once you confirm an invoice, OpenERP assigns it a unique number, and all of the corresponding accounting entries are generated. So open the invoice and click Validate to do that and move the invoice into an Open state with a number of SAJ/2011/001.
You can send your customer the invoice for payment at this stage. Click Print Invoice to get a PDF document that can be printed or emailed to the customer.
You can also attach the PDF document to the OpenERP invoice record. Save the PDF somewhere convenient on your PC (such as on your desktop). Then click the Add button to the top right of the invoice form (it looks like a clipboard). Browse to the file you just saved (record.pdf if you did not change its name). This gives you a permanent non-editable record of your invoice on the OpenERP system.
Review your chart of accounts to check the impact of these activities on your accounting. You will see the new revenue line from the invoice.
客户收款流程基本上与供应商付款流程一致。点击菜单：会计(Accounting) ‣ 客户(Customers) ‣ 客户发票(Customer Invoices)。检索到你想要对应客户需付款的发票并点击：
Use the Payment button which opens a new window Pay Invoice.
Select the Payment Method, for this example select Cash then validate the entry.