This is the documentation for older versions of Odoo (formerly OpenERP).

See the new Odoo user documentation.

See the new Odoo technical documentation.

From Invoice to Payment

This chapter traces the basic accounting workflow in OpenERP, from entering an invoice to registering payments. The various operations are described, from the entry of accounting receipts to the treatment of the reconciliation process, including payment orders.

Accounting is at the heart of managing a company: all the company's operations have an impact here. It has an informational role (how much cash is there? what debts need to be repaid? what is the stock valuation?) and, because of the information it provides, a reliable and detailed accounting system can and should have a major decision-making role.

In most companies, accounting is limited to producing statutory reports and satisfying the directors' curiosity about certain strategic decisions, and to printing the balance sheet and the income statement several times a year. Even then, there is often several weeks of delay between reality and the report.

Примечание

Valueing your Accounting Function

Во многих небольших компаниях функции бухгалтерии оценены недостаточно.

Not only do you see the data for documents being entered into the system twice, but also the results are often just used to produce legal documents and regular printouts of the balance sheet and income statements some weeks after the closing dates.

С другой стороны, интеграция учета в систему управления означает, что можно:

  • reduce data entry effort – you only need to do it once,

  • run your processes with the benefit of financial vision: for example, in managing projects, negotiating contracts, and forecasting cash flow,

  • легко получать доступ к полезной информации, когда это действительно нужно, такой как кредитная позиция заказчика.

So accounting is too often underused. The information it brings makes it a very effective tool for running the company if it is integrated into the management system. Accounting information really is necessary in all of your company's processes for you to be effective, for example:

  • for preparing quotations it is important to know the precise financial position of the client, and to see a history of any delays in payment,

  • если данный клиент превысил заданный лимит кредита, бухгалтерия может автоматически остановить предстоящие доставки этому клиенту,

  • if a project budget is 80% consumed, but the project is only 20% complete, you could renegotiate with the client, or review and rein in the objectives of the project,

  • if you need to improve your company's cash flow then you could plan your service projects on the basis of billing rates and payment terms of the various projects, and not just delivery dates – you could work on short-term client projects in preference to R&D projects, for example.

OpenERP's general accounting and analytic accounting handle these needs well because of the close integration between all of the application modules. Furthermore, the transactions, the actions and the financial analyses happen in real time, so that you cannot only monitor the situation but also manage it effectively.

The account module in OpenERP covers general accounting, analytic accounting, and auxiliary and budgetary accounting. It is double-entry, multi-currency and multi-company.

Примечание

Виды учета

  • General accounting (or financial accounting) is for identifying the assets and liabilities of the business. It is managed using double-entry accounting which ensures that each transaction is credited to one account and debited from another.

  • Analytical accounting (or management accounting, or cost accounting) is an independent accounting system, which reflects the general accounts but is structured along axes that represent the company's management needs.

  • Вспомогательный учет отражает текущие счета клиентов и/или поставщиков.

  • Учет бюджетов предопределяет ожидаемое распределение ресурсов, обычно в начале финансового года.

Совет

Несколько компаний

There is a choice of methods for integrating OpenERP in a multi-company environment:

  • if the companies hold few documents in common (such as products, or partners - any OpenERP resource), you could install separate databases,

  • if the companies share many documents, you can register them in the same database and install OpenERP's multi-company documents to finely manage access rights,

  • вы можете синхронизировать заданные типы документов между несколькими базами данных при помощи модуля base_synchro, который, однако, распространяется по принципу совместного финансирования, а не через стандартные открытые хранилища.

One of the great advantages of integrating accounts with all of the other modules is in avoiding the double entry of data into accounting documents. So in OpenERP, an Order automatically generates an Invoice, and the Invoice automatically generates the accounting entries. These in turn generate tax submissions, customer reminders, and so on. Such strong integration enables you to:

  • уменьшить количество работы по вводу данных,

  • значительно уменьшить количество ошибок ввода данных,

  • получать информацию в реальном времени и сделать возможным очень короткое время реакции (например, для напоминаний об оплате счетов),

  • обеспечить своевременное приложение усилий во всех областях управления компанией.

Совет

For Accountants

You can configure the Accounting application using the information given in the configuration wizard.

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With appropriate rights management, this allows trustees to provide customers with real-time access to their data. It also gives them the opportunity to work on certain documents that have no direct accounting impact, such as budgets.

This can provide a value-added service that greatly improves the interaction between trustees and their clients.

Все счета ведутся в валюте по умолчанию (которая указана в определении компании), но каждый счет и/или проводка может также иметь вторую валюту (которая определена в счете). Значения мультивалютных транзакций затем прослеживаются в обоих валютах.

For this chapter you should start with a fresh database that includes demo data, with Sales Management installed and a generic chart of accounts.